Saturday, May 23, 2020

Hiv / Aids Is The Most Powerful Weapon - 1824 Words

â€Å"Education is the most powerful weapon that you can use to change the world†, was stated by the famous Nelson Mandela. If education is proven to be effective in fixing global issues, like HIV/AIDS, then why do many continents, such as Africa, not use education as an ethical way to break the cycle of serious health epidemics? HIV/AIDS is one of the biggest health issues the world faces today, but particularly Africa has the largest epidemic rate. In the article by author Kristien Michielsen, she states that â€Å"in 2010, 70% of the new HIV infections occurred in sub-Saharan Africa. This part of the world host two thirds of all HIV- positive people, while it is home to only 12% of the world population†. Although epidemics seem to be leveling off around the world, sub-Saharan Africa remains at an unacceptable high level. In the same article by Michielsen, she goes on to state that â€Å"young people are severely affected by the epidemic; on average, 2,500 young peop le (15- 24 years) get infected with HIV every day of which 80% in sub-Saharan Africa†. Many countries in Africa critique the effectiveness of decreasing epidemics with HIV education in schools, but in Kenya, Nigeria and Tanzania, it has shown otherwise. HIV/AIDS education in African schools is ethical because it has proven to be effective in decreasing infection rates in the upcoming generation. Many parents and school officials advocate that the best thing you can give to a child is knowledge, but yet have the mindset thatShow MoreRelatedAids : An African American Girl Who Was Suffering From Hiv Virus859 Words   |  4 PagesLA downtown, I met Sara who is an African American girl who was suffering from HIV virus. She told me her sadly story when she was having sexual things with random people just because of having money. She didn’t have any knowledge about this virus. So, because of that, she got the HIV virus, and she thanked god that she treated so long to be clean . So, some people in this world don’t know what the AIDS means. So, the AIDS is a dangerous virus that attack cells human’s immune system, and if the peopleRead MoreAIDS1469 Words   |  6 Pagessyndrome (AIDS) is the final stage of HIV disease, which causes severe damage to immune system and numerous of dead all over the world. AIDS is the sixth leading cause of death among people ages 25 – 44 in the United States. Millions of people around the world are living with HIV/AIDS, including many children under age 15 (PubMed Health). In addition, AIDS ranks the first leading of death in Vietnam. More than 260000 people living with AIDS and an estimated 100 people become infected every day (AIDS inRead MoreRegan Revolution Through President Obama1512 Words   |  7 Pageskeeping up with what their friends ate for lunch via any number of social media outlets. With this burst in IT development came the race to create powerful technology so small that it will fit in a person’s pocket. Americans are not only connected to the world and each other at any given moment of the day, most now have constant access to very powerful computers the size of their hands. Another shift in the culture is the documentation of people’s lives. Every event is documented and publicizedRead MoreWhat are the main causes of high unemployment in Zimbabwe? How serious a problem is it? Will land resettlement and HIV-AIDS ease or worsen the situation? Give reasons.1516 Words   |  7 Pages2002 was much higher as a result of the worsening business environment as the government fails to create opportunities to stimulate industrial expansion. Causes of Unemployment Unemployment is Zimbabwe has been caused by quite a number of factors. Most of these are mainly because of political reasons. The following are some of the factors that are causing unemployment: Sluggish investment and growth Weak export performance Poor macroeconomic policy environment The investment/business climateRead Moreenglish quotation essay1471 Words   |  6 Pagesï » ¿Education is the most powerful weapon which you can use to change yourself and the world. There is a reason why every civilization throughout time has valued education,because it truly can alter our collective condition and make our lives easier, simpler, and most crucially, happier! From Egyptians learning to write on papyrus tablets to late nineteenth century scientists striving to discover medicines like penicillin, there has always been an urge in humanity to be better and to be more thanRead MoreBiography of Nelson Mandela 1355 Words   |  6 Pagesalso a part of the Xhosa tribe, these people strongly believe in the importance of laws, education, and courtesy. The Xhosa’s culture influenced him to grow up thinking that education was the key to success. Mandela said, â€Å"Education is the most powerful weapon which you can use to change the world.† Mandela attended the University College of Fort Hare then University of South Africa. The knowledge that Mandela gained throughout his years was not kept to himself, when in prison he educated the prisonersR ead MoreAIDS 101 Essay2073 Words   |  9 PagesAids The Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) is responsible for Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome (AIDS) and attacks the T-4 lymphocytes, which are a fundamental part of the immune system of man. As a result, reduces the responsiveness of the organism to cope with opportunistic infections caused by viruses, bacteria, protozoa, fungi and other microorganisms. At the moment in which the AIDS virus is spreading with frightening speed and very dangerous and that there is a collective concern about AIDSRead MoreA Critique on the 1994 Rwanda Genocide822 Words   |  3 Pagesescaped to neighboring countries. Thousands of children were left with the responsibility of caring for more than 90,000 households, which left a large number of widow and orphans (Peyntjens 2010). Also, thousands cases of extensive rape which led to HIV/AIDS and spread these daises throughout the country. Furthermore, there hundred and thousands victims suffering trauma of rape and violent acts and they were died after mon ths of being in trauma and some even killed themselves. On the other hand, RwandaRead More Human Rights 2138 Words   |  9 PagesTitle WHAT SHOULD BE A LEGITIMATE ISSUE AGENDA CONCERNING HUMAN RIGHTS IN INTERNATIONAL RELATIONS? The interconnectedness in the world produces a new agenda of international issues which affect both powerful and less powerful countries (Lamy, 2001a, 2006b: 213). The effects are widespread, and these problems could only be solved through international cooperation (Greene, 2006: 452). This paper seeks to consider four issues which are legitimate to the human rights agenda in international relationsRead More Interest Group Politics and Collective Action Essay1539 Words   |  7 Pagesthe present, the Campaign grew to it’s current size nearing half of a million members, and the group’s PAC contributed over 5 million dollars to lobbying efforts. These efforts focus on four issues: First, it lobbies to increase efforts to fight HIV/AIDS. Secondly, the HRC aims to use federal legislation and workplace advocacy to combat discrimination in the workplace. Third, an effort is made to pass legislation against anti-gay hate crimes. Lastly, the Campaign works to pass legisla tion addressing

Tuesday, May 12, 2020

Culture A Black Or Gay Culture - 2006 Words

Culture† can be used to explain a black or gay culture. So, Deaf culture provides bonds that hold the deaf community together. Several different ways to categorize define culture- Historically created solutions: â€Å"culture is the conscious and unconscious content that a group learns, shares, and transmits from generation to generation that organizes life and helps interpret existence† †¦ â€Å"culture is the distinctive life†¦way of people who are united by a common language† †¦ â€Å"the sum of attitudes, customs, and beliefs that distinguish one group of people from another. Culture is transmitted, through language, material objects, rituals, institutions, and art from one generation to the next.† These definitions revolve around this definition: â€Å"culture is that complex whole which includes knowledge, belief, art, morals, law, custom, and any other capabilities and habits acquired by man as a member of society.† People are born into culture, not with culture. Culture provides access to historically created, time tested solutions. for effective living that have been transmitted over generations. 5 Hallmarks of a culture: Cultural hallmarks are language, heritage, customs, arts, and family or â€Å"cultural players.† Language: enables people in the community to have an effective communication system- ultimate bond that holds them together. Language gives community members a way to express specific feelings, thoughts, and ideas, which is crucial to their survival and essential for effectiveShow MoreRelatedGender Stigma Behind The Hiv And Aids Epidemic Essay1717 Words   |  7 PagesSomething that will never be forgotten and still haunts gay men to this day is the gay stigma behind the HIV and AIDS epidemic. Yes, it is fact that majority of gay men are HIV-infected but, it was said that to have AIDS was only a â€Å"gay thing† back in the 1980’s, which it is not. To this day, it influences many of our elders or parents that lived during the 1980’s that witnessed the huge outbreak. If we look at the show called Empire created by Lee Daniels and Danny Strong in the episode called â€Å"TheRead MoreWomen Of Hip Hop Culture Essay1723 Words   |  7 Pagesconsume hip hop regardle ss of the sexism and machismo of their rap artist spouses. Historically, black women who have sex with other women haven’t been recognized in the Black community. Also, the expectations are the same in hip hop culture because men reject lesbians. An example is the murder in 2003 of Sakia Gunn after she declared her lesbian identity to a group of males. We all know that in hip hop culture men predominate and precisely masculine. Women can achieve a higher professional success thanRead MoreGay, Lesbian, And Queer Essays On Popular Culture909 Words   |  4 PagesCreekmur, Corey K., and Alexander Doty. Out in Culture: Gay, Lesbian, and Queer Essays on Popular Culture. Durham: Duke UP, 1995. Print. Out in Culture is a book that offers a variety of experiences from different lesbians and gays and the roles they play in todays society. The book is filled with personal accounts of disappointments, acceptance, and pleasures that each person has faced in this mass culture of homophobic oppression and discrimination. Many of the essays in the book pinpointsRead MoreRap Music And Its Influence On African American Youth1705 Words   |  7 Pagesmany of the performers themselves are African American. An overtly masculine culture dominates rap music and creates gender stereotypes that become abundantly popular to the youthful audience. Three constant themes that are found within the rap culture are encouragement of violence, the misogynistic representation of women, an extreme hatred of homophobia. Each theme plays a detrimental role in the process of defining black masculinity as well as shaping the values, morals, and beliefs that its youngerRead MoreStereotypical Depiction And Hegem onic Masculinity901 Words   |  4 Pageskey role in the process. Misogynistic representations of women and the more general marketing of â€Å"hood narratives†, occur in part, in response to a perceived consumer demand for stereotypical representations of the ghetto, and specifically of young Black men and women (Watkins 2001:389). Negative representation towards women isn’t only talked about in their songs, but shown in the popular music videos that played on stations aimed for kids of the younger generation, such as MTV. It is found that womenRead MoreYou Cant Steal A Culture By John Mcworter861 Words   |  4 PagesYou cant steal a culture was written by John McWorter. He is writing this paper to a general audience, or anyone interested about culture appropriation. Jon McWorter is an american studies teacher at Columbia University. McWorter connected with the topic because he sees the problem everyday. His arguments strongly written, and he is trying to explain t hat everyone thinks culture appropriations wrong, but its just a normal thing. His opinion is clearly stated that culture appropriation is fine. PeopleRead MoreAnalysis Of The Film Paris Is Burning 1628 Words   |  7 PagesAfter the Civil Rights Movement, negative attitudes towards black people had a lessened; however there was still some racial tension nationwide. Racism, the disease that plagued this country (and still does today) was not gone in addition to that, other issues plagued America. The fruits of the labor of the Civil rights movement was not reaped by all of Black America. There was an omission of queer* black Americans when it came to who got the benefits that came from the Civil Rights movement. TheRead MoreMy Family Cultural Value Or Ethnicity Influences Her Gender Expression And Sexual Orientation850 Words   |  4 PagesJae does not believe her family’s cultural value or ethnicity influences her gender expression and sexual orientation. â€Å"I do not think my family cultural value has to do with anything. The only thing that can effect me from my culture is the religious belief. The only time gender role will influence me is if I was an AG or a fem. I am just me, therefore my family’s cultural values has nothing to do with anything.† Jae personally did not like the question dealing with family cultural value becauseRead MoreThe Cultural Identity Of The African American Community1653 Words   |  7 PagesThe African American community has sat at the end of a discriminatory lens from the moment they set foot in the United States. For that reason, black communities have undergone the process of community building to ensure that all members feel a sense of belonging. Race, gender, nationality, ethnicity, poverty, and sexual orientation, all play a role in developing one’s identity and more often than not, these multiple identities intersect with blackness. Being that American society has deemed coloredRead MoreBlack History After American History900 Words   |  4 PagesBlack History Month started off, as Black History Week in 1926 in 1976 it became a month. It is known that many minorities have suffered in America, Canada, and the United Kingdom especially African Americans; therefore, a month was created to raise awareness of their culture and the role they played in American history. There are other minorities such as Latinos and the Gay/Lesbian community who have suffered and played a huge role in American history who deserve an annual celebration of achievements

Wednesday, May 6, 2020

Discuss How Sherriff Presents Human Weakness Free Essays

Discuss how Sherriff presents human weakness and frailty in Journeys End Journeys End was written with the intention of â€Å"letting the war speak†. The lives of the officers on the front line during 1917 are examined. A key theme that is explored throughout the play is the reactions of the mind and body, under the stress of the war. We will write a custom essay sample on Discuss How Sherriff Presents Human Weakness or any similar topic only for you Order Now Each character represents the weakness of the human being in an individual way, but the character on which frailty is mainly focussed is Stanhope. Stanhope is the topic of many conversations within the dugout and the first conversation we see, Stanhope is mentioned. The conversation is between Osborne, the second in command, and the commanding officer of the company being relieved. The commander inquires as to whether Stanhope is â€Å"drinking like a fish†, this indicates towards the audience for the first time, that Stanhope is an alcoholic and is seen to turn to alcohol to cope with the war. Osborne jumps to the defence of Stanhope, explaining that Stanhope is â€Å"the best company commander†. Despite Stanhope’s coping mechanism of alcohol, he still has respect shown to him by his men. This is shown throughout, yet more so in the final moments of the play when the troops are rallied by Stanhope for the raid. Stanhope is shown to reject reminders of life before the war, and if his family waiting for him back home is mentioned it will not be tolerated. He shows that he does not want to be reminded when Raleigh arrives at the dugout and Stanhope becomes agitated. The conversations between the men and Stanhope are riddled with â€Å"silence† and on stage this would show the tension between the characters build up. We see how the war has also made Stanhope paranoid, and Stanhope’s irritation and paranoia become clear when he is insistent on looking through Raleigh’s letters home, to see if he has put anything derogatory about Stanhope. He is afraid that the truth about him being an alcoholic will reach home, and as Sherriff has told us, Stanhope has a fiancee waiting back home, and Stanhope does not want her view of him as this leader of the men to be damaged, especially by Raleigh writing home â€Å"and tell her I reek of whisky all day†. Stanhope’s human qualities are not shown often throughout the play, yet when Sherriff introduces his fiancee who is waiting him back in England; it adds a tender heartedness to the character. Stanhope also seems to distract his self from the war by being obsessed with cleanliness and hygiene. This is also related to the war and shows the characters drive and determination to make it through the war. Stanhope is described in the stage directions as having â€Å"well brushed† hair and is shown to have â€Å"care for† his uniform. Further in the play, the audience witnesses the death of Osborne who is seen as the caring figure within the dugout. After this, Stanhope uses anger along side the alcohol as a coping mechanism. It is shown how Stanhope appears to have lost everything, because of Osborne’s death. He has also lost Hibbert after using his authoritative powers over him and forced him to â€Å"get out† and â€Å"go to bed†. When Raleigh tries to talk to Stanhope about how he copes, Stanhope tells him to â€Å"get out† and so loses him as well. This scene shows the beginning of the downfall of Stanhope and bodes the ending of the play with the death of his soldiers. In the play Stanhope admits to his need for alcohol to cope with the war, stating that if he was not â€Å"doped with whisky† he could â€Å"go mad with fright†. Possibly showing why he showed sympathy towards Hibbert when he was breaking down, and that if Stanhope can survive the war he could possibly change. Overall Stanhope is presented as a man with is weaknesses yet has the courage (although this could be because of the doping effects of alcohol) to push on throughout his stay in the dugout and the war. He is regarded as a hero in the eyes of his men. Sherriff shows us Stanhope as an officer with a great experience of the war, yet this is juxtaposed with the fresh new recruit who is â€Å"straight from school†, Raleigh. The young soldier is idealistic and has arrived at the front lines with little knowledge of the reality of it all, but is in search of the intangibles, honour and glory. Sherriff shows this to the audience by having Raleigh describe the war like a game at school, using words such as â€Å"cricket† and â€Å"rugger†, which show the youth, innocence and naivety of Raleigh. When the reality becomes clear, Raleigh’s attitude towards the war changes dramatically. The death of Raleigh at the end of the play sums up his characteristics in the best possible way, his innocence is shown until his final moments when he compares the wound in his back to be â€Å"just the same† as getting â€Å"kicked† in a game of â€Å"rugger†. His death signifies much more than the passing of one soldier, added with Raleigh passing, the candle flame extinguishing, shows the death of society in 1917 and of innocence, showing how nothing could return to the way it was in the years previous to the war. After the raid which occurs near the end of the play, Raleigh’s view on the war has changed after he witnesses the first deaths of people he knew. He questions as to how Stanhope can stay drinking â€Å"champagne† whilst Osborne’s body is â€Å"lying-out there†. Again this shows the audience just how naive Raleigh is, as he has never experienced the loss of someone close to him and the effect that the war has on people. Despite Raleigh’s innocence and weakness, he is determined to fight until the end, showing that his character (although naive) has strength. In his final scene, Raleigh is told he has â€Å"got a Blighty one†, yet Raleigh believes he â€Å"cant go home† showing how although it is the end, Raleigh has matured and has become a true soldier, willing to stay and fight on even in the face of adversity. Raleigh has finally achieved his goal of obtaining the intangibles, honour and glory, but the question the audience would be asking is, was his death worth gaining these? The relationship that is built up between Raleigh and Stanhope is examined from the beginning of the play, especially from the view of Raleigh worshipping Stanhope as a hero, â€Å"he’d just got his MC and been made a captain. He looked splendid†. Near the end of the play, Stanhope changes his mood from not liking the fact that Raleigh is a member of his company, to a gentler approach, â€Å"he bathes the boys face†. This shows the audience the relationships which were formed by men during the war, even if this specific event does have feminine connotations. These relationships were a necessity to combat human frailty and weakness. Osborne is conferred in two contrasting ways. In his physical appearance he is â€Å"hard as nails† and is seen as second in command of the company, but at the same time Sherriff also presents Osborne as an â€Å"uncle† to the men, due to his nature of being gentle. Stanhope seems to have a large dependency upon Osborne and this is shown when Stanhope calls him â€Å"dear old uncle†, the use of dear here shows how much Stanhope needs him. Osborne is a humble and intelligent man. This is expressed when Osborne quotes a line from Alice in Wonderland (which is the book he is reading) â€Å"how doth the little crocodile†¦with gently smiling jaws†. The audience is given a depth to Osborne’s character, and the â€Å"kid’s book† shows us his form of escapism from the war. The choice of book that is included could be seen as significant, as the characters in Alice in Wonderland are so mad, this could be used to represent the madness of the war and how little sense it made to many people. Osborne, in some ways, has more to deal with than the rest of the officers in the dugout, and thus this shows his strength, as he must cope with the problems of the other officers, as they look up to him as â€Å"uncle†, he is an outlet for the men and allows them to show their weakness. Trotters coping mechanism is similar to that of Stanhope’s, in the way that he results to consuming a substance. It is clear that Trotter copes by eating, as he â€Å"has put on weight during the war†. Trotter also draws â€Å"a hundred and forty-four little circles on a bit o’ paper† which represent the one hundred and forty four hours which the officers must stay posted at the dugout and surrounding trench. Trotter is seen to maintain the company’s morale, as his (attempts to the) use of humour to keep spirits up, â€Å"cheer up skipper†. Trotter is shown to be rather emotionless, yet this view changes later on in the play when Stanhope states that Trotter is â€Å"always the same† his reply is â€Å"little you know† showing that Trotter isn’t coping with the war as well as the other officers thought. Trotter is also used in a way, to highlight the culture of intangibles that had swept the younger generations of this times society, as he is honoured to gain the post of second in command of the company after Osborne’s death, showing how many men joined up to escape from their lives back home and go in search of honour and glory on the battlefield. Hibbert is presented as a man whom the war has had a great psychological effect upon. In his first appearance within the play he complains about his â€Å"neuralgia†. The audience that would be viewing this play in 1928 would most likely show sympathy towards Stanhope, as he had to put up with this type of officer, yet a contemporary audience, with a greater understanding of the psychological effects the war had upon certain people, such as â€Å"shell Shock† or PTS (post traumatic stress disorder) would most likely show sympathy towards Hibbert. Hibbert does not wish to join the other men before the big attack, â€Å"you want me to go up now? † causing him to judge others by his own set standards. Stating that Raleigh is â€Å"too keen† because he was in the trenches with the other soldiers. Hibbert is rude to his commanding officer, Stanhope, as he does not follow his orders, and from a military perspective this would not be tolerated and Hibbert would have been eligible for court martial. Mason, in the play, is the character who is not of officer rank. He is a servant to the officers within the dugout. At the beginning of the war (1914) officers were all form public schools, but as numbers started to diminish by 1917, officers were allowed to be from public or private schools. Masons distractions from the war are rather trivial, such as a tin of â€Å"apricots†. The inclusion of a lower class character shows how the war affected everyone, as class did not change the dangers that the soldiers faced. Out of being a servant little is seen of Mason, showing how although in the worst of circumstances, every day things such as cooking had to carry on. Critical Reviews of Journeys End Many groups could comment upon the play and respond in different ways towards it. A Marxist would state that Sherriff does not achieve his aim, as the play only presents the middle classes who did not have to fight. And thus it does not show the horrific conditions in which many ordinary soldiers had to endure in the trenches. It does not show the fear felt by the men on the front line because the play is set in a (relatively) safe dug out, in which the officers have a servant and in comparison to the ordinary foot soldiers, are well looked after. The military may have taken a dislike to the play, due to its anti war nature and how Sherriff seems to be questioning the authority of high command and why the soldiers follow orders without a second thought. A lack of sympathy would have been shown by the military for the characters who suffered psychological illnesses. Sherriff did not intend the play to be anti war, yet was presented this way by the plays producer, who was known for having an anti war view. Sheriff’s aim was to let the war speak and expose the truths of it. A feminist may say that there are no female characters within the play, and that the only females that are mentioned are objectified and will always be waiting for their husbands when they return from the war. They would say the lack of females could mean that the play could not show the coping strategies of humans, and that it does not fully represent their weaknesses. Sherriff claimed that the play was intended to â€Å"let the war speak†, yet the lack of female characters within the play means that it can not show the effect the war had on women. How to cite Discuss How Sherriff Presents Human Weakness, Essay examples

Saturday, May 2, 2020

The American Story free essay sample

There is no single story of American history, there is no timeline with its own entirety that can be taught. Yet, that’s how history is taught in school: as a single timeline of events all leading up to what the student is left to suppose is the same thing: America, yet each year the journey of how it becomes varies slightly and ends different than it did even the year before, yet each claiming to be the correct history of the same America. This ought not to be: history is indeed ‘slippery’, but there ought not to be a different America, maybe even several different Americas known to each generation of children. Surely there’s a remedy to the different jumbles of facts of famous persons and dates in the past. Maybe history isn’t so much the names and dates and places, but more the stories, the spirit of what is to be learned and understanding who we are. â€Å"All of us children of the twentieth century know, or should know, that there are no absolutes in human affairs, and thus there can be no such thing as perfect objectivity.† (pg. 782) America has always been called a melting pot, a large amalgamation of varied cultures, religions, ideologies, ethnicities and practices, so to believe that there is any one story – or any one way to recount American history is ridiculous. How, with so many voices, so many different experiences and perspectives can we expect for there to be only one voice? How can the history books constantly be updated to tell the â€Å"real† American story, when just a few years prior there was a new book that had it? (pg. 782). If one book does have the complete history of America, how can it be justified when a few years later another book differing enough in content and style to change the spirit and understanding of the facts yet be claiming the same thing as the first? If there is one ri ght timeline, then the timeline should be taught and not tampered with over and over as it has been and observed; and seeing as how the timeline has been tampered with, it leaves only one solution. There is no one, true, correct way to teach history, and there is no single history that should be taught in American history, because America is a melting pot, a melting pot of cultures and ideas and events, trials, sacrifices and victories and everyone has been affected by history differently: different races and various times had different experiences and different trials to overcome. There is no single story. There is no book that could cover it all. The method used now is of no use: as everyone tries to keep up with everyone else, the same facts are repeated differently and leaves the readers in utter confusion with several versions of the same picture, or a picture that is incomplete. Indeed, there is no way to cover in a book the many threads in the story of the past and beginning of America. What’s to be done then? If there’s no book that can cover it all, what of history in schools? What of Christopher Columbus and John Smith and George Washington and Abraham Lincoln, now â€Å"walk-on characters† (pg. 777)? They are not history. History is not people and places and dates. History is us, our legacy, the legacy of our people and nation. It’s the spirit of our stories, and what’s happened to us to lead us to where we are today the â€Å"great unfinished symphony† (â€Å"The World was Wide Enough† Hamilton) of what we’ve done and are doing! History wasn’t written by people, it never was about Washington or Jefferson or Columbus, they didn’t write it. It was written by what they did, what happened, what they dreamed of and fought for and believed in and what came to pass. Never mind that they’re being replaced with Chief Crazy Horse and Jacob Riis (pg. 777), never mind Chief Crazy Horse and Jacob Riis, history is not about them. History is about us, it’s about us as a people, and our stories. It’s about identity: American identity. Identity cannot be taught in a textbook about Daniel Boone or Thaddeus Stevens or riots in the streets and wars for freedom. It isn’t taught through people or pictures or even words: it’s taught through experiences, understanding the experiences and the events of what led up to now. What has led up to the American identity as of now and everything that contributed to it before to make a â€Å"Now†. There is nothing wrong with learning from history books, there is nothing wrong with learning to think like a historian, there is nothing wrong with learning about the pilgrims and the Native Americans and the immigrants of the 1800s or the space age: there is nothing wrong with learning about all of it, but there is something wrong with learning none of it. â€Å"–they not only bring history up to date but make changes – often substantial changes – in the body of the work.† (pg. 782) In â€Å"–the histories of the fifties†¦America was perfect†¦. But now the texts have changed,† â€Å"The history texts now hint at a certain level of unpleasantness in American history.† (pg. 778) I was in 10th or 11th grade before I’d even heard of the Salem Witch trials, I never heard of POW camps and how brutal they were until high school either. Don’t soften the facts, don’t fluff it up, don’t omit it. Yes, Amer ican history has its dark periods, but it’s part of our story, it’s still part of who we are. It is who we are, it is our heritage, what we are living up to, and we have a right to all of it, the good and the bad, the good so we can know where to look for an example, and the bad so we can make it better and leave those dark periods behind. It is our history, and should not be shortened, should not be cut, should not be cheated in any way, we should know it. It is our history, our legacy, our identity, we should know it. Yes, there is something very wrong with America’s history that is taught in schools today. So many facts are missing, so many have changed, names and places that parents don’t recognize are prominent on the pages of their children’s textbooks, and as these names and places change yet again only a few years later, the picture changes and is left empty in places and a new kind of America, as incomplete and different from the first is the one the parents knew. The identity known to one generation and another are no longer the same: this should not be. America’s stories should be told, all of her stories should be told. Not just of one character, not just of the good times, not just of the bad. Not just with the intent to teach students to think like historians, but to bring understanding. History is heritage, it is a legacy, an identity. America is one, or ought to be, and students should be taught to be one. America should be one in spirit, and should be ta ught the spirit of her stories.

Monday, March 23, 2020

Strategic Innovation and Technology Management

The Innovation Case Introduction The audio music industry is a diverse and dynamic environment where innovations take place rapidly. The record music labels found themselves faced with fierce competition when Fraunhofer in Germany developed an algorithm that enabled music to be compressed and distributed as MP3.Advertising We will write a custom report sample on Strategic Innovation and Technology Management specifically for you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More Later, Shawn Fanning, a student, developed Napster that enabled people to share music files through the internet. This led to high levels of music piracy. The record companies had to delve into the technology using iTunes where customers would purchase and buy music legally. The record companies had to decide whether to make iTunes technology open for use by other companies. Innovation There were certain audio innovations that took place in the industry. These innovations were spurred on by the customer’s increasing demand to share music. In 1991, a German called Fraunhofer IIS invented the MP3, a technology that enabled music to be compressed to a tenth of its size. The compression did not have an adverse effect on the quality of the record. This enabled the people to share and distribute music easily. As people shared their music online, the use of the MP3, grew by huge numbers. Many other companies aiming to cash in on the innovation decided to produce different variants of the MP3. Fraunhofer had two choices, to patent the innovation in order to prevent other companies from cashing in on his profits or let the companies use the innovation. The consumers are the major stakeholders who benefited from the innovation as they were able to share music online. In 1999, Shawn Fanning, a student at Northeastern campus of Boston, came up with a software program that enabled customers with internet access to share the mp3 files. The software was very friendly having a sea rch box enabling someone to look for another person in the network with whom to share music. The software did not have a database filled with the mp3 music rather it was filled with people who were in possession of different kinds of music. The consumers demanded the interchange of music over the net. People had started trading the copyright materials via the internet. When Napster was shut down through legal action by the record companies, parallel companies cropped up. The music companies had no choice but to respond to market demand.The music labels teamed up to provide Music tunes and Press play. These services enabled people to download music from the net legally.Advertising Looking for report on business economics? Let's see if we can help you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More However the people preferred the illegal sites that had cropped up after Napster was shut down. The music labels did not have a great selection of music like the unauthorised s ites. Furthermore the music labels used digital rights management systems that were not user friendly. ITunes came to be developed where the people could play music in MP3 formats in iPods made by the Apple Company. Later other companies wanted to play ITunes in their iPods. Apple had to decide whether to work with other companies. By entering into contracts with these companies, they would get to sell their music and receive some commission from the companies. In playing non-iTunes music the Apple Company gets to get exposure to other markets and in the process they may get to sell their music. The success of the iPod and iTunes will depend on how the company keeps innovation, providing different and improved products as the market demand changes and the frequency of competitors offering different and improved products. The musicians by selling their copyright rights allowing their music to be downloaded and freely distributed see the advantages of getting a fan base and publicity as better than retaining their copyrights. Podcasting has had a great impact on the radio industry. The consumers now have the power of choice to determine what they will listen to, either traditional radio stations or podcasts. This will definitely cause the radio stations be more innovative in order to retain their customers. Lessons Learnt A firm in any technological market must make a decision whether to protect their innovation or not. There are advantages in protecting the innovation as one gets rent from its use. However not protecting the technology can also be advantageous since other companies in using the technology market the firm’s products((Hurmelinna-Laukkanen and Ritala, 2010). It is wiser to protect technologies that are not easily copied. The company has to analyse whether protecting the technology is appropriate for protection or not (Hurmelinna-Laukkanen and Puumalainen, 2007) A company may use patents, copyrights and trademarks and trade secret to protect its innovation (Karjala, 2011). In Patenting, other companies are prevented from using the innovation or technology. Getting a trademark prevents other companies from using the symbol or name that the firm uses in its trading activities. Copyrights on the other hand helps artists protect their music, writings or art from illegal use and distribution (King, 2002).Advertising We will write a custom report sample on Strategic Innovation and Technology Management specifically for you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More In a trade secret, the firm decides to conceal their manufacturing process or details that usually would be mandatory to reveal while registering a patent. Fraunhofer in Germany decide to work with other companies in the marketing and selling of MP3. He did not patent the technology recognising that other companies could easily produce their version of the software. Sometimes it is better when other people imitate the innovation since they c an make software that is an improvement (Shenkar, 2011) The music record companies worked with other companies enabling their non-iPods to support the iTunes music. At times open innovation markets turn out to be profitable in terms of marketing and sales (OECD, 2008) .The musicians decided to sell their copyrights in open forums to their fans to get publicity and cut marketing costs. Defining Strategy Introduction Genzyme is a huge company in the biotechnical industry. In 2008, it had revenues of over $4,6 Billion. It has over 10,000 employees in over 40 countries. Its portfolio of companies includes 17 manufacturing and several genetic laboratory testing facilities. The reason for the company’s success is its choice to focus on the production of drugs that treat very rare but life threatening diseases. The company’s strategic choice made it grow and earn high profits. The work before them was hard but they managed to do it and excel to get very high returns. Defining Strategy Genzyne strategic decision has enabled it to face few or hardly any competitors. There are very few companies that are willing to focus on the research and sale of drugs that can be used to treat rare and life threatening diseases. Secondly the company will be able to do target small scale marketing since the patients were few. The company would be able to cut the marketing costs considerably. Pharmaceutical companies incur high marketing costs in large sales labour force and promotion costs while selling their drugs. The number of physicians who treated these rare diseases are also few so the company can market and sell the drugs directly to the customers therefore cutting costs. The insurance companies would also not be able to resist at all on any grounds the reimbursement of the costs to its patients since the patients are few. First of all since the process of developing a drug in the industry took around ten to fourteen years. The research costs were more than $800 t o conduct trials in the clinic, get the approval of FDA and bring to the customers the drugs. Most companies wanted to focus on the common chronic diseases since the sales would be in billions. The companies wanted a mass market. The customer do have less or no bargaining power when buying orphan drugs since the companies that sell such drugs are very few. Focusing on the orphan drugs definitely affects the kind of resources and capabilities that a company may need. The highest costs will be research since it will take a longer time to develop these drugs. The company need also highly skilled engineers and bio technicians to develop the drugs.Advertising Looking for report on business economics? Let's see if we can help you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More The biggest investment will be research and labour costs. Genzyme strategic focus on orphan drugs is a great idea and sustainable in the long term. The statistics for their drug, Cerezyne is astounding. The patients in the country who take the drug pay over $ 170,000 in a year. 4,500 patients take the drug for life leading to sales of over $800 million. Competitors and marketing costs are reduced efficiently ensuring they will always have high sales for their products. The company diversified into other areas of medicine so that they could remain independent and get all the profits from the sale of their drugs. The company therefore decided to do its own testing, manufacturing and sales of the drugs. To fund the costs the company strategically started a genetic counselling centre, chemical supplies and diagnostic testing businesses. The company went public to raise money through the stock exchange and they were able to get over $27Million. Ever since the orphan drug act was passed, more companies have entered into this market to take advantage of tax allowances offered by the government. The company in the future will need to analyse and develop drugs for diseases that are extremely rare so as to be able to have few competitors and survive. Lessons Learnt For a company to have a competitive advantage in the industry, it must appraise its market and the competition. It has to appraise its core capabilities, strengths, weaknesses, competitive advantages, threats and opportunities. It has to carry out a SWOT analysis. Porter has proposed five things that a company needs to look at. This is the degree of existing rivalry, threats of potential entrants, bargaining power of suppliers, threats of substitutes and bargaining power of the buyers (Mindtools Editors, n,d). There are three generic models a company can use. The company may differentiate products, target to lower costs of production or do both in a niche market(Proven models Editors, n,d) Genzyme opted to pr oduce differentiated products. Genzyme was able to analyse its market and its sustainable core competencies. It chose a market where the competition was low, the entrants in the market were also consistently low and the buyers did not have high bargaining power to affect the sales prices. Their strategic analysis and actions paid off. Comparison of the two cases The two case studies focus on innovation management. The audio companies are forced with choices on innovation management while Genzyme has to choose which technology to invest. In whatever category a company is in, it has to be strategic in making decisions. References Hurmelinna-Laukkanen, P Ritala, P (2010) â€Å"Protection for profiting from collaborative service innovation†. Journal of Service Management, Vol. 21, Iss 1, pp.6 – 24. Hurmelinna-Laukkanen, P Puumalainen, Kaisu (2007) â€Å"Formation of the appropriability regime: Strategic and practical considerations†.  Innovation,Management, Poli cy Practice Journal, Vol 9, Iss 1,pp 28-45. Karjala, D (2011) â€Å"Protecting Innovation in Computer Software, Biotechnology, and Nanotechnology†. Virginia Journal Of Law Technology, Vol 6, No1. Web. King, K (2002).†The Value of Intellectual Property, Intangible Assets and Goodwill†.  Journal of Intellectual Property Rights, Vol 7, No 3, pp 245-249. Mind Tools Editors (n.d) â€Å"Porter’s Five Forces: Assessing the Balance of Power in a Business Situation†. Mind tools. Accessed from Organisation For Economic Co-Operation And Development (2008) â€Å"Open Innovation in Global Networks†. Web. Proven Models Editors (n,d) â€Å"Porter’s three generic strategies†. Proven Models. Accessed from Shenkar, O (2011)†The Challenge Of Imovation†. Ivey Business Journal. Web. This report on Strategic Innovation and Technology Management was written and submitted by user Bryleigh Z. to help you with your own studies. You are free to use it for research and reference purposes in order to write your own paper; however, you must cite it accordingly. You can donate your paper here.

Friday, March 6, 2020

Lets Chop Their Pork essays

Let's Chop Their Pork essays Lets Chop Their Pork Last August, President Gloria Macapagal Arroyo announced that our country is in a fiscal crisis. In simpler terms, we are facing financial problems. And it is evident that our government is trying to do something about this. But is it really working? What could be done to really solve this? Or at least lighten up the load regarding monetary problems? One thing our government is trying to do is cutting down Internal Revenue Allotments, better known as IRAs by 30% and honoraria allocated for public leaders and workers (Disaster A8). But what they are trying to do is not going to get us out of our predicament soon. First, what is this IRA and honorarium our government is trying to cut? Internal Revenue Allotments are the funds given to Local Government Units (LGUs) by the National Government as their (the LGUs) part of the National Budget. It is the fund used for Municipal and Local projects such as town plazas, infrastructures, public schools and the like. Honorarium on the other hand, is Public Leaders (or professionals) pay or the fee for the service they provide as defined in the MSN Encarta. And Public Leaders would not allow it, the IRA and honoraria, to be cut as it seems to appear in the development of this proposal. As a matter of fact, Metro Manila mayors have only agreed to freeze their IRA increase for the next two yea rs, not the exact idea of our government. They say that IRA cuts will have adverse effects on the services they would want to provide their constituents (Chavez 8). In addition, IRA is the lifeblood of LGUs and if it would be cut, people in poor provinces and municipalities will suffer according to the League of Governors in the Philippines. They add that they commit to use their IRAs for projects that would provide development and benefits (Maglalang 2). On the part of honoraria cuts, it would be not much of a help too even if we try cutting them ...

Tuesday, February 18, 2020

Lewin Theory Force-Field Model Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 2000 words

Lewin Theory Force-Field Model - Essay Example He also argued that in order to realize desired change, the change agents should suppress the restraining forces but promote the driving forces of change. This model has been widely used in the health sector to introduce and implement change. Developing nursing theory of change from Lewin (1951), Force-Field Model, and its application in the medical/surgical floor. Change is a common occurrence in our society and natural environment all over the world. It is a common saying that the only permanent phenomenon is change. Change generally means the alteration of something or an organism in any of its aspects. For example, when one alters his or her behavior for any reason, then that is change. Since change is a very important phenomenon in our society, there has been a lot of debate about it in political, social and economic spheres. IIes and Sutherland (2001), observe that change can either be planned or emergent; the former denotes conscious reasoning plan to attain desirable change d ue to the flaws of the status quo. In contrast, emergent change happens spontaneously without plan and this type of change is fueled by both external and internal forces in an organization. Numerous theories have been developed to explain change and to give room for empirical research. Before we proceed, it is important to know what a theory is. A theory is a formal set of ideas that are intended to explain why something happens or exists (Hornby 2003). Lewin (1951), developed force-field model of change. The force field model was a major development for nursing change theories since it has influenced many of them. The nursing force field theory is considered to be the mother of nursing theories. The paper will explore the force field theory, its applications, and how it has evolved in the medical sector. According to IIes and Sutherland (2001), there is need for change in the health service and this need has been expressed by professionals, governments and researchers. Lewin (1951) , developed force field theory and it has had a great influence on nursing change theories. He offered an elaborate explanation on the behavior human beings through his force-field model of change. In the theory, Lewin conceptualized three steps, unfreezing, moving and refreezing, when he described the process of change (Bozak 2003). At the unfreezing stage the problem is identified. There have been many problems that nurses encounter during their practice like data management, poor working conditions, poor relationship with the hospital administration, and exposure to health risks among others. At this stage, the particular problem is identified and brainstorming is done to determine the most appropriate way of solving it. Once the problem has been identified, its solution is required through change to avoid breakdown or deterioration of an organization. When solving a problem, there are often obstacles that are met. Many often resist change due to fear of the unknown and the desir e to maintain the status quo. At this stage strategies are put in place to ensure that the resistance is appropriately dealt with. Generally, people resist change when they feel that they have been left out of the process. Change agents at this stage are to make nurses own the change by involving them in the negotiations and receiving their feedbacks on the intended change. Lewin classified factors causing change into two categories, driving and restraining forces. Driving forces include the underlying