Tuesday, August 25, 2020

Global Technological Advancements of Social Networking Sites

Worldwide Technological Advancements of Social Networking Sites The ongoing worldwide innovative headways have prompted numerous adjustments in the manners individuals communicate because of the improvement of person to person communication destinations. A person to person communication webpage alludes to an electronic help that permits individuals to make semi-open or open profiles, interface with different clients of the site other than review and navigating their rundown of associations and those made by others inside the website’s system.Advertising We will compose a custom exposition test on Global Technological Advancements of Social Networking Sites explicitly for you for just $16.05 $11/page Learn More The principal informal communication website to be set up was ‘Friendster’ in 2002 followed by ‘LinkedIn’ and ‘Bebo’. Others incorporate ‘Facebook’ and ‘MySpace’ concocted in 2004 and 2005 individually. The destinations are developing exponentially in prevalence around the world as a large number of individuals keep on joining the web network. Regardless of the prevalence of the long range interpersonal communication destinations, I have not considered utilizing any of them sooner rather than later since the utilization of person to person communication locales negatively affects connections. At the point when utilized for a delayed period, the destinations upgrade social seclusion in spite of the fact that they appear to bring individuals closer through their online cooperations. The sole factor that causes the social disengagement is the fulfillment that individuals will in general traverse the locales once they speak with their loved ones particularly in instances of geological partition. This correspondence ruins up close and personal connections among individuals. With time, the security related with one-on-one correspondence debilitates. Examination has demonstrated that, this type of detachment can prompt mental, mental just as mental issue s, for example, wretchedness, tension and physical grumblings among others. For example, couples in significant distance sentimental connections will in general be unfaithful on the off chance that they depend solely on online correspondence over the social destinations for an extensive stretch. Person to person communication destinations are tedious. The clients of social destinations invest a great deal of energy refreshing their profiles and speaking with different clients inside their group of friends. This degrades them structure the time they ought to have spend in different exercises. Rather than focusing on the exercises doled out by their folks, most youngsters invest the greater part of their energy in the long range interpersonal communication locales representing a hazard to their relationship with their folks. For understudies, expanded utilization of the social destinations prompts poor scholarly execution, which contrarily influences their relationship with their inst ructors as well as with their folks. Individuals who will in general utilize the majority of their time in electronic interchanges may get dependent. Much the same as some other type of enslavement, the social site(s) confines one from the remainder of the general public including his/her family. In spite of the fact that long range interpersonal communication locales guarantee to ensure an individual’s data, this isn't generally the situation. The protection settings of a large portion of the locales are dynamic. Attributable to the way that numerous individuals are in steady inquiry of a phony character, they may gain admittance to a user’s data. Such individuals utilize one’s individual data, for example, name, region of living arrangement and training level to counterfeit their personality profile.Advertising Looking for article on sociologies? How about we check whether we can support you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More They may utilize the ta ken personality to post illicit materials just as other wrong materials in the site. This stains the picture of the victim(s), which may prompt the improvement of a harsh relationship with his/her companions. The wrong utilization of one’s personality has made numerous relationships around the world to break. Tragically it requires some investment before on understands that another person has taken his/her character for some unlawful or rather improper reasons. Furthermore, fraud prompts the improvement of harsh connections among businesses and representatives. This happens when one presents certain data on informal communication destinations that may discolor the picture of a given association or a business. It makes animosity between the person in question and his/her manager, which may prompt the loss of his/her activity in the association. Youngsters may accidentally post private data about their family on the destinations without the information on the guardians. When th e guardians find that their kid uncovered some special kinds of mystery, the youngster may confront a diligently time attempting to disclose it to the guardians. Analysts have announced that numerous off the record pieces of information have discovered their way to the web, which has negatively affected the connection among guardians and their kids. A few guardians have constrained their kids to close their records in the interpersonal interaction locales trying to reestablish the messed up relationship. In the ongoing past, scientists have announced expanded instances of digital tormenting. Communications over the informal communication destinations are the premise of most types of digital tormenting. It includes the utilization of long range interpersonal communication locales to compromise and humiliate others. It is a typical wonder among teenagers. In grown-ups, such acts are alluded to as digital provocation or digital following which have legitimate ramifications. Examination has indicated that one in each three adolescents has been a survivor of digital harassing. The digital domineering jerks could be schoolmates or even neighbors. They cause a great deal of enthusiastic and mental worry to the people in question. In the extraordinary cases, the casualties may wind up ending it all. The effect isn't just on the people in question yet additionally on the harassers since they will undoubtedly experience some type of discipline either inside the family or inside the organization being referred to. It is consequently apparent that the utilization of person to person communication destinations negatively affects connections inside family settings as well as inside different foundations/associations in the general public.

Saturday, August 22, 2020

Accounting Research Paper Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 750 words

Bookkeeping - Research Paper Example It is anyway essential to comprehend that bookkeeping is anything but an extremely simple subject to increase total knowledge upon. It is generally observed as an exceptionally troublesome exchange to learn and get one’s complete comprehension is connected with his individual premium levels. Basically, bookkeeping is the craft of appropriately enumerating the money related data related with various business substances to differed partners just as chiefs (Cookingham 1989). The job of top administration is likewise significant as it grasps the genuine importance of bookkeeping through the figures and measurements that are reached upon by the bookkeepers. The difficult work that goes in, in the wake of drawing up bookkeeping records and accounting reports is something that makes ready for monetary achievement of associations around the world. Bookkeeping happens with an appropriate ability of the fiscal reports which show how cash was utilized as far as the downturn, elevate or some other type of financial season. The assets utilized by the association are additionally given legitimate accentuation inside the bookkeeping systems along these lines proposing that bookkeeping is straightforwardly relative to the endeavors made by the administration spaces (Nichols 2004). Basically, bookkeeping includes a job inside the whole association as various business substances rely upon this field of business for the drawn out development and improvement of the association. Pushing forward with a similar conversation on bookkeeping, one finds that there have been changes to this field of investigation recently too. There have been gradual changes just as discount ones, however the reality has remained that bookkeeping has held its place for a serious significant stretch of time now. This will keep on being the situation in the occasio ns to come too since bookkeeping includes a conclusive spot inside the understanding degrees of business substances just as the

Sunday, August 9, 2020

The Pro-Con List COLUMBIA UNIVERSITY - SIPA Admissions Blog

The Pro-Con List COLUMBIA UNIVERSITY - SIPA Admissions Blog If you have yet to do so, you are bound to eventually.   Old school or digital, you will sit down with a blank piece of paper and draw a couple of columns or open up an Excel spreadsheet.   You will then label the columns Pro and Con. Perhaps you have a separate sheet of paper for each school or a separate tab for each school in Excel.   Decision time. The clock to the deposit deadline is ticking. You will then diligently begin to fill in the columns with what you see to be the pros and cons of each school you have received an offer from.   Or perhaps you just received one offer and it is a matter of either accepting the offer or choosing a different path. I thought I would take an opportunity to help you fill in the pro list in regard to SIPA.   Yes, I am biased.   A native New Yorker I am not, but a converted New York lover I am.   I have lived in New York City for seven years and whenever I leave   for travel, I always miss it. Instead of focusing on topics like world class faculty and a robust curriculum that every policy school can most likely boast about, I will focus on the experience of living in New York City.   The diversity, the energy, the attitude, the people, the events, the culture . . . the sound! I would venture to guess that by the time I help you with the pros of attending school in New York City, your pros column will require you to either go on to a second piece of paper or scroll down on your Excel sheet because more rows are going to filled than you can view on the screen. I lived in California before moving to New York and I was trying to make the decision as to whether or not I should move east.   I had never lived on the east coast before and it was a big decision for me at the time, and I remember my pro con list as well.   I distinctly remember a conversation I had with a very well traveled friend.   He said something along the line of the following: Matt, you would be crazy NOT to move to New York City.   I believe that everyone should live in New York City once in their lifetime.   It has an energy you just cant describe.   Dont let this chance pass. I took his advice, and boy am I glad I did.   Lets take a quick look at some of the unique attributes and flavor of NYC. The following facts are from Wikipedia . . . Over 900 songs have been written about NYC (think about the inspiration you will get living here). NYC has two professional football teams, two professional hockey teams, two professional baseball teams, a professional soccer (sorry rest of the world, thats what we call it) team, a professional womens basketball team, and although it is a subject to local debate, a professional mens basketball team.   There will soon be two so called professional teams when the Nets move to Brooklyn soon. The subway runs 24 hours a day, 365 days a year and is the largest rapid system in the world when measured by stations in operation, with 468. You may not think of nature when you think NYC, however New York City has over 28,000  acres (110  km2) of municipal parkland and 14  miles (23  km) of public beaches. NYC has more than 2,000 arts and cultural organizations and more than 500 art galleries of all sizes. Care to cross pollinate with other students?   There are close to 600,000 university students in New York City. . . .   and how about some famous quotes related to New York City. Culture just seems to be in the air, like part of the weather.   Tom Wolfe I go to Paris, I go to London, I go to Rome, and I always say, Theres no place like New York.   Its the most exciting city in the world now.   Thats the way it is.   Thats it.     Robert Deniro “I miss New York. I still love how people talk to you on the street just assault you and tell you what they think of your jacket.” Madonna When its 100 degrees in New York, its 72 in Los Angeles. When its 30 degrees in New York, in Los Angeles its still 72. However, there are 6 million interesting people in New York, and only 72 in Los Angeles.   Neil Simon At night… the streets become rhythmical perspectives of glowing dotted lines, reflections hung upon them in the streets as the wistaria hangs its violet racemes on its trellis. The buildings are shimmering verticality, a gossamer veil, a festive scene-prop hanging there against the black sky to dazzle, entertain, amaze.   Frank Lloyd Wright You come to New York to find the ambiance that will evoke your best. You do not necessarily know precisely what that might be, but you come to New York to discover it. Dr. James Hillman New York is a galaxy of adventure at once elegant, exciting and bizarre. Its a city that moves so fast, it takes energy just to stand still.   Barbara Walters Can you feel the excitement!?   Not only will you find inspiration at SIPA . . . NYC is a basically an inspiration or great moment waiting to happen.   Thats my quote and Ill leave it at that.

Saturday, May 23, 2020

Hiv / Aids Is The Most Powerful Weapon - 1824 Words

â€Å"Education is the most powerful weapon that you can use to change the world†, was stated by the famous Nelson Mandela. If education is proven to be effective in fixing global issues, like HIV/AIDS, then why do many continents, such as Africa, not use education as an ethical way to break the cycle of serious health epidemics? HIV/AIDS is one of the biggest health issues the world faces today, but particularly Africa has the largest epidemic rate. In the article by author Kristien Michielsen, she states that â€Å"in 2010, 70% of the new HIV infections occurred in sub-Saharan Africa. This part of the world host two thirds of all HIV- positive people, while it is home to only 12% of the world population†. Although epidemics seem to be leveling off around the world, sub-Saharan Africa remains at an unacceptable high level. In the same article by Michielsen, she goes on to state that â€Å"young people are severely affected by the epidemic; on average, 2,500 young peop le (15- 24 years) get infected with HIV every day of which 80% in sub-Saharan Africa†. Many countries in Africa critique the effectiveness of decreasing epidemics with HIV education in schools, but in Kenya, Nigeria and Tanzania, it has shown otherwise. HIV/AIDS education in African schools is ethical because it has proven to be effective in decreasing infection rates in the upcoming generation. Many parents and school officials advocate that the best thing you can give to a child is knowledge, but yet have the mindset thatShow MoreRelatedAids : An African American Girl Who Was Suffering From Hiv Virus859 Words   |  4 PagesLA downtown, I met Sara who is an African American girl who was suffering from HIV virus. She told me her sadly story when she was having sexual things with random people just because of having money. She didn’t have any knowledge about this virus. So, because of that, she got the HIV virus, and she thanked god that she treated so long to be clean . So, some people in this world don’t know what the AIDS means. So, the AIDS is a dangerous virus that attack cells human’s immune system, and if the peopleRead MoreAIDS1469 Words   |  6 Pagessyndrome (AIDS) is the final stage of HIV disease, which causes severe damage to immune system and numerous of dead all over the world. AIDS is the sixth leading cause of death among people ages 25 – 44 in the United States. Millions of people around the world are living with HIV/AIDS, including many children under age 15 (PubMed Health). In addition, AIDS ranks the first leading of death in Vietnam. More than 260000 people living with AIDS and an estimated 100 people become infected every day (AIDS inRead MoreRegan Revolution Through President Obama1512 Words   |  7 Pageskeeping up with what their friends ate for lunch via any number of social media outlets. With this burst in IT development came the race to create powerful technology so small that it will fit in a person’s pocket. Americans are not only connected to the world and each other at any given moment of the day, most now have constant access to very powerful computers the size of their hands. Another shift in the culture is the documentation of people’s lives. Every event is documented and publicizedRead MoreWhat are the main causes of high unemployment in Zimbabwe? How serious a problem is it? Will land resettlement and HIV-AIDS ease or worsen the situation? Give reasons.1516 Words   |  7 Pages2002 was much higher as a result of the worsening business environment as the government fails to create opportunities to stimulate industrial expansion. Causes of Unemployment Unemployment is Zimbabwe has been caused by quite a number of factors. Most of these are mainly because of political reasons. The following are some of the factors that are causing unemployment: Sluggish investment and growth Weak export performance Poor macroeconomic policy environment The investment/business climateRead Moreenglish quotation essay1471 Words   |  6 Pagesï » ¿Education is the most powerful weapon which you can use to change yourself and the world. There is a reason why every civilization throughout time has valued education,because it truly can alter our collective condition and make our lives easier, simpler, and most crucially, happier! From Egyptians learning to write on papyrus tablets to late nineteenth century scientists striving to discover medicines like penicillin, there has always been an urge in humanity to be better and to be more thanRead MoreBiography of Nelson Mandela 1355 Words   |  6 Pagesalso a part of the Xhosa tribe, these people strongly believe in the importance of laws, education, and courtesy. The Xhosa’s culture influenced him to grow up thinking that education was the key to success. Mandela said, â€Å"Education is the most powerful weapon which you can use to change the world.† Mandela attended the University College of Fort Hare then University of South Africa. The knowledge that Mandela gained throughout his years was not kept to himself, when in prison he educated the prisonersR ead MoreAIDS 101 Essay2073 Words   |  9 PagesAids The Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) is responsible for Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome (AIDS) and attacks the T-4 lymphocytes, which are a fundamental part of the immune system of man. As a result, reduces the responsiveness of the organism to cope with opportunistic infections caused by viruses, bacteria, protozoa, fungi and other microorganisms. At the moment in which the AIDS virus is spreading with frightening speed and very dangerous and that there is a collective concern about AIDSRead MoreA Critique on the 1994 Rwanda Genocide822 Words   |  3 Pagesescaped to neighboring countries. Thousands of children were left with the responsibility of caring for more than 90,000 households, which left a large number of widow and orphans (Peyntjens 2010). Also, thousands cases of extensive rape which led to HIV/AIDS and spread these daises throughout the country. Furthermore, there hundred and thousands victims suffering trauma of rape and violent acts and they were died after mon ths of being in trauma and some even killed themselves. On the other hand, RwandaRead More Human Rights 2138 Words   |  9 PagesTitle WHAT SHOULD BE A LEGITIMATE ISSUE AGENDA CONCERNING HUMAN RIGHTS IN INTERNATIONAL RELATIONS? The interconnectedness in the world produces a new agenda of international issues which affect both powerful and less powerful countries (Lamy, 2001a, 2006b: 213). The effects are widespread, and these problems could only be solved through international cooperation (Greene, 2006: 452). This paper seeks to consider four issues which are legitimate to the human rights agenda in international relationsRead More Interest Group Politics and Collective Action Essay1539 Words   |  7 Pagesthe present, the Campaign grew to it’s current size nearing half of a million members, and the group’s PAC contributed over 5 million dollars to lobbying efforts. These efforts focus on four issues: First, it lobbies to increase efforts to fight HIV/AIDS. Secondly, the HRC aims to use federal legislation and workplace advocacy to combat discrimination in the workplace. Third, an effort is made to pass legislation against anti-gay hate crimes. Lastly, the Campaign works to pass legisla tion addressing

Tuesday, May 12, 2020

Culture A Black Or Gay Culture - 2006 Words

Culture† can be used to explain a black or gay culture. So, Deaf culture provides bonds that hold the deaf community together. Several different ways to categorize define culture- Historically created solutions: â€Å"culture is the conscious and unconscious content that a group learns, shares, and transmits from generation to generation that organizes life and helps interpret existence† †¦ â€Å"culture is the distinctive life†¦way of people who are united by a common language† †¦ â€Å"the sum of attitudes, customs, and beliefs that distinguish one group of people from another. Culture is transmitted, through language, material objects, rituals, institutions, and art from one generation to the next.† These definitions revolve around this definition: â€Å"culture is that complex whole which includes knowledge, belief, art, morals, law, custom, and any other capabilities and habits acquired by man as a member of society.† People are born into culture, not with culture. Culture provides access to historically created, time tested solutions. for effective living that have been transmitted over generations. 5 Hallmarks of a culture: Cultural hallmarks are language, heritage, customs, arts, and family or â€Å"cultural players.† Language: enables people in the community to have an effective communication system- ultimate bond that holds them together. Language gives community members a way to express specific feelings, thoughts, and ideas, which is crucial to their survival and essential for effectiveShow MoreRelatedGender Stigma Behind The Hiv And Aids Epidemic Essay1717 Words   |  7 PagesSomething that will never be forgotten and still haunts gay men to this day is the gay stigma behind the HIV and AIDS epidemic. Yes, it is fact that majority of gay men are HIV-infected but, it was said that to have AIDS was only a â€Å"gay thing† back in the 1980’s, which it is not. To this day, it influences many of our elders or parents that lived during the 1980’s that witnessed the huge outbreak. If we look at the show called Empire created by Lee Daniels and Danny Strong in the episode called â€Å"TheRead MoreWomen Of Hip Hop Culture Essay1723 Words   |  7 Pagesconsume hip hop regardle ss of the sexism and machismo of their rap artist spouses. Historically, black women who have sex with other women haven’t been recognized in the Black community. Also, the expectations are the same in hip hop culture because men reject lesbians. An example is the murder in 2003 of Sakia Gunn after she declared her lesbian identity to a group of males. We all know that in hip hop culture men predominate and precisely masculine. Women can achieve a higher professional success thanRead MoreGay, Lesbian, And Queer Essays On Popular Culture909 Words   |  4 PagesCreekmur, Corey K., and Alexander Doty. Out in Culture: Gay, Lesbian, and Queer Essays on Popular Culture. Durham: Duke UP, 1995. Print. Out in Culture is a book that offers a variety of experiences from different lesbians and gays and the roles they play in todays society. The book is filled with personal accounts of disappointments, acceptance, and pleasures that each person has faced in this mass culture of homophobic oppression and discrimination. Many of the essays in the book pinpointsRead MoreRap Music And Its Influence On African American Youth1705 Words   |  7 Pagesmany of the performers themselves are African American. An overtly masculine culture dominates rap music and creates gender stereotypes that become abundantly popular to the youthful audience. Three constant themes that are found within the rap culture are encouragement of violence, the misogynistic representation of women, an extreme hatred of homophobia. Each theme plays a detrimental role in the process of defining black masculinity as well as shaping the values, morals, and beliefs that its youngerRead MoreStereotypical Depiction And Hegem onic Masculinity901 Words   |  4 Pageskey role in the process. Misogynistic representations of women and the more general marketing of â€Å"hood narratives†, occur in part, in response to a perceived consumer demand for stereotypical representations of the ghetto, and specifically of young Black men and women (Watkins 2001:389). Negative representation towards women isn’t only talked about in their songs, but shown in the popular music videos that played on stations aimed for kids of the younger generation, such as MTV. It is found that womenRead MoreYou Cant Steal A Culture By John Mcworter861 Words   |  4 PagesYou cant steal a culture was written by John McWorter. He is writing this paper to a general audience, or anyone interested about culture appropriation. Jon McWorter is an american studies teacher at Columbia University. McWorter connected with the topic because he sees the problem everyday. His arguments strongly written, and he is trying to explain t hat everyone thinks culture appropriations wrong, but its just a normal thing. His opinion is clearly stated that culture appropriation is fine. PeopleRead MoreAnalysis Of The Film Paris Is Burning 1628 Words   |  7 PagesAfter the Civil Rights Movement, negative attitudes towards black people had a lessened; however there was still some racial tension nationwide. Racism, the disease that plagued this country (and still does today) was not gone in addition to that, other issues plagued America. The fruits of the labor of the Civil rights movement was not reaped by all of Black America. There was an omission of queer* black Americans when it came to who got the benefits that came from the Civil Rights movement. TheRead MoreMy Family Cultural Value Or Ethnicity Influences Her Gender Expression And Sexual Orientation850 Words   |  4 PagesJae does not believe her family’s cultural value or ethnicity influences her gender expression and sexual orientation. â€Å"I do not think my family cultural value has to do with anything. The only thing that can effect me from my culture is the religious belief. The only time gender role will influence me is if I was an AG or a fem. I am just me, therefore my family’s cultural values has nothing to do with anything.† Jae personally did not like the question dealing with family cultural value becauseRead MoreThe Cultural Identity Of The African American Community1653 Words   |  7 PagesThe African American community has sat at the end of a discriminatory lens from the moment they set foot in the United States. For that reason, black communities have undergone the process of community building to ensure that all members feel a sense of belonging. Race, gender, nationality, ethnicity, poverty, and sexual orientation, all play a role in developing one’s identity and more often than not, these multiple identities intersect with blackness. Being that American society has deemed coloredRead MoreBlack History After American History900 Words   |  4 PagesBlack History Month started off, as Black History Week in 1926 in 1976 it became a month. It is known that many minorities have suffered in America, Canada, and the United Kingdom especially African Americans; therefore, a month was created to raise awareness of their culture and the role they played in American history. There are other minorities such as Latinos and the Gay/Lesbian community who have suffered and played a huge role in American history who deserve an annual celebration of achievements

Wednesday, May 6, 2020

Discuss How Sherriff Presents Human Weakness Free Essays

Discuss how Sherriff presents human weakness and frailty in Journeys End Journeys End was written with the intention of â€Å"letting the war speak†. The lives of the officers on the front line during 1917 are examined. A key theme that is explored throughout the play is the reactions of the mind and body, under the stress of the war. We will write a custom essay sample on Discuss How Sherriff Presents Human Weakness or any similar topic only for you Order Now Each character represents the weakness of the human being in an individual way, but the character on which frailty is mainly focussed is Stanhope. Stanhope is the topic of many conversations within the dugout and the first conversation we see, Stanhope is mentioned. The conversation is between Osborne, the second in command, and the commanding officer of the company being relieved. The commander inquires as to whether Stanhope is â€Å"drinking like a fish†, this indicates towards the audience for the first time, that Stanhope is an alcoholic and is seen to turn to alcohol to cope with the war. Osborne jumps to the defence of Stanhope, explaining that Stanhope is â€Å"the best company commander†. Despite Stanhope’s coping mechanism of alcohol, he still has respect shown to him by his men. This is shown throughout, yet more so in the final moments of the play when the troops are rallied by Stanhope for the raid. Stanhope is shown to reject reminders of life before the war, and if his family waiting for him back home is mentioned it will not be tolerated. He shows that he does not want to be reminded when Raleigh arrives at the dugout and Stanhope becomes agitated. The conversations between the men and Stanhope are riddled with â€Å"silence† and on stage this would show the tension between the characters build up. We see how the war has also made Stanhope paranoid, and Stanhope’s irritation and paranoia become clear when he is insistent on looking through Raleigh’s letters home, to see if he has put anything derogatory about Stanhope. He is afraid that the truth about him being an alcoholic will reach home, and as Sherriff has told us, Stanhope has a fiancee waiting back home, and Stanhope does not want her view of him as this leader of the men to be damaged, especially by Raleigh writing home â€Å"and tell her I reek of whisky all day†. Stanhope’s human qualities are not shown often throughout the play, yet when Sherriff introduces his fiancee who is waiting him back in England; it adds a tender heartedness to the character. Stanhope also seems to distract his self from the war by being obsessed with cleanliness and hygiene. This is also related to the war and shows the characters drive and determination to make it through the war. Stanhope is described in the stage directions as having â€Å"well brushed† hair and is shown to have â€Å"care for† his uniform. Further in the play, the audience witnesses the death of Osborne who is seen as the caring figure within the dugout. After this, Stanhope uses anger along side the alcohol as a coping mechanism. It is shown how Stanhope appears to have lost everything, because of Osborne’s death. He has also lost Hibbert after using his authoritative powers over him and forced him to â€Å"get out† and â€Å"go to bed†. When Raleigh tries to talk to Stanhope about how he copes, Stanhope tells him to â€Å"get out† and so loses him as well. This scene shows the beginning of the downfall of Stanhope and bodes the ending of the play with the death of his soldiers. In the play Stanhope admits to his need for alcohol to cope with the war, stating that if he was not â€Å"doped with whisky† he could â€Å"go mad with fright†. Possibly showing why he showed sympathy towards Hibbert when he was breaking down, and that if Stanhope can survive the war he could possibly change. Overall Stanhope is presented as a man with is weaknesses yet has the courage (although this could be because of the doping effects of alcohol) to push on throughout his stay in the dugout and the war. He is regarded as a hero in the eyes of his men. Sherriff shows us Stanhope as an officer with a great experience of the war, yet this is juxtaposed with the fresh new recruit who is â€Å"straight from school†, Raleigh. The young soldier is idealistic and has arrived at the front lines with little knowledge of the reality of it all, but is in search of the intangibles, honour and glory. Sherriff shows this to the audience by having Raleigh describe the war like a game at school, using words such as â€Å"cricket† and â€Å"rugger†, which show the youth, innocence and naivety of Raleigh. When the reality becomes clear, Raleigh’s attitude towards the war changes dramatically. The death of Raleigh at the end of the play sums up his characteristics in the best possible way, his innocence is shown until his final moments when he compares the wound in his back to be â€Å"just the same† as getting â€Å"kicked† in a game of â€Å"rugger†. His death signifies much more than the passing of one soldier, added with Raleigh passing, the candle flame extinguishing, shows the death of society in 1917 and of innocence, showing how nothing could return to the way it was in the years previous to the war. After the raid which occurs near the end of the play, Raleigh’s view on the war has changed after he witnesses the first deaths of people he knew. He questions as to how Stanhope can stay drinking â€Å"champagne† whilst Osborne’s body is â€Å"lying-out there†. Again this shows the audience just how naive Raleigh is, as he has never experienced the loss of someone close to him and the effect that the war has on people. Despite Raleigh’s innocence and weakness, he is determined to fight until the end, showing that his character (although naive) has strength. In his final scene, Raleigh is told he has â€Å"got a Blighty one†, yet Raleigh believes he â€Å"cant go home† showing how although it is the end, Raleigh has matured and has become a true soldier, willing to stay and fight on even in the face of adversity. Raleigh has finally achieved his goal of obtaining the intangibles, honour and glory, but the question the audience would be asking is, was his death worth gaining these? The relationship that is built up between Raleigh and Stanhope is examined from the beginning of the play, especially from the view of Raleigh worshipping Stanhope as a hero, â€Å"he’d just got his MC and been made a captain. He looked splendid†. Near the end of the play, Stanhope changes his mood from not liking the fact that Raleigh is a member of his company, to a gentler approach, â€Å"he bathes the boys face†. This shows the audience the relationships which were formed by men during the war, even if this specific event does have feminine connotations. These relationships were a necessity to combat human frailty and weakness. Osborne is conferred in two contrasting ways. In his physical appearance he is â€Å"hard as nails† and is seen as second in command of the company, but at the same time Sherriff also presents Osborne as an â€Å"uncle† to the men, due to his nature of being gentle. Stanhope seems to have a large dependency upon Osborne and this is shown when Stanhope calls him â€Å"dear old uncle†, the use of dear here shows how much Stanhope needs him. Osborne is a humble and intelligent man. This is expressed when Osborne quotes a line from Alice in Wonderland (which is the book he is reading) â€Å"how doth the little crocodile†¦with gently smiling jaws†. The audience is given a depth to Osborne’s character, and the â€Å"kid’s book† shows us his form of escapism from the war. The choice of book that is included could be seen as significant, as the characters in Alice in Wonderland are so mad, this could be used to represent the madness of the war and how little sense it made to many people. Osborne, in some ways, has more to deal with than the rest of the officers in the dugout, and thus this shows his strength, as he must cope with the problems of the other officers, as they look up to him as â€Å"uncle†, he is an outlet for the men and allows them to show their weakness. Trotters coping mechanism is similar to that of Stanhope’s, in the way that he results to consuming a substance. It is clear that Trotter copes by eating, as he â€Å"has put on weight during the war†. Trotter also draws â€Å"a hundred and forty-four little circles on a bit o’ paper† which represent the one hundred and forty four hours which the officers must stay posted at the dugout and surrounding trench. Trotter is seen to maintain the company’s morale, as his (attempts to the) use of humour to keep spirits up, â€Å"cheer up skipper†. Trotter is shown to be rather emotionless, yet this view changes later on in the play when Stanhope states that Trotter is â€Å"always the same† his reply is â€Å"little you know† showing that Trotter isn’t coping with the war as well as the other officers thought. Trotter is also used in a way, to highlight the culture of intangibles that had swept the younger generations of this times society, as he is honoured to gain the post of second in command of the company after Osborne’s death, showing how many men joined up to escape from their lives back home and go in search of honour and glory on the battlefield. Hibbert is presented as a man whom the war has had a great psychological effect upon. In his first appearance within the play he complains about his â€Å"neuralgia†. The audience that would be viewing this play in 1928 would most likely show sympathy towards Stanhope, as he had to put up with this type of officer, yet a contemporary audience, with a greater understanding of the psychological effects the war had upon certain people, such as â€Å"shell Shock† or PTS (post traumatic stress disorder) would most likely show sympathy towards Hibbert. Hibbert does not wish to join the other men before the big attack, â€Å"you want me to go up now? † causing him to judge others by his own set standards. Stating that Raleigh is â€Å"too keen† because he was in the trenches with the other soldiers. Hibbert is rude to his commanding officer, Stanhope, as he does not follow his orders, and from a military perspective this would not be tolerated and Hibbert would have been eligible for court martial. Mason, in the play, is the character who is not of officer rank. He is a servant to the officers within the dugout. At the beginning of the war (1914) officers were all form public schools, but as numbers started to diminish by 1917, officers were allowed to be from public or private schools. Masons distractions from the war are rather trivial, such as a tin of â€Å"apricots†. The inclusion of a lower class character shows how the war affected everyone, as class did not change the dangers that the soldiers faced. Out of being a servant little is seen of Mason, showing how although in the worst of circumstances, every day things such as cooking had to carry on. Critical Reviews of Journeys End Many groups could comment upon the play and respond in different ways towards it. A Marxist would state that Sherriff does not achieve his aim, as the play only presents the middle classes who did not have to fight. And thus it does not show the horrific conditions in which many ordinary soldiers had to endure in the trenches. It does not show the fear felt by the men on the front line because the play is set in a (relatively) safe dug out, in which the officers have a servant and in comparison to the ordinary foot soldiers, are well looked after. The military may have taken a dislike to the play, due to its anti war nature and how Sherriff seems to be questioning the authority of high command and why the soldiers follow orders without a second thought. A lack of sympathy would have been shown by the military for the characters who suffered psychological illnesses. Sherriff did not intend the play to be anti war, yet was presented this way by the plays producer, who was known for having an anti war view. Sheriff’s aim was to let the war speak and expose the truths of it. A feminist may say that there are no female characters within the play, and that the only females that are mentioned are objectified and will always be waiting for their husbands when they return from the war. They would say the lack of females could mean that the play could not show the coping strategies of humans, and that it does not fully represent their weaknesses. Sherriff claimed that the play was intended to â€Å"let the war speak†, yet the lack of female characters within the play means that it can not show the effect the war had on women. How to cite Discuss How Sherriff Presents Human Weakness, Essay examples

Saturday, May 2, 2020

The American Story free essay sample

There is no single story of American history, there is no timeline with its own entirety that can be taught. Yet, that’s how history is taught in school: as a single timeline of events all leading up to what the student is left to suppose is the same thing: America, yet each year the journey of how it becomes varies slightly and ends different than it did even the year before, yet each claiming to be the correct history of the same America. This ought not to be: history is indeed ‘slippery’, but there ought not to be a different America, maybe even several different Americas known to each generation of children. Surely there’s a remedy to the different jumbles of facts of famous persons and dates in the past. Maybe history isn’t so much the names and dates and places, but more the stories, the spirit of what is to be learned and understanding who we are. â€Å"All of us children of the twentieth century know, or should know, that there are no absolutes in human affairs, and thus there can be no such thing as perfect objectivity.† (pg. 782) America has always been called a melting pot, a large amalgamation of varied cultures, religions, ideologies, ethnicities and practices, so to believe that there is any one story – or any one way to recount American history is ridiculous. How, with so many voices, so many different experiences and perspectives can we expect for there to be only one voice? How can the history books constantly be updated to tell the â€Å"real† American story, when just a few years prior there was a new book that had it? (pg. 782). If one book does have the complete history of America, how can it be justified when a few years later another book differing enough in content and style to change the spirit and understanding of the facts yet be claiming the same thing as the first? If there is one ri ght timeline, then the timeline should be taught and not tampered with over and over as it has been and observed; and seeing as how the timeline has been tampered with, it leaves only one solution. There is no one, true, correct way to teach history, and there is no single history that should be taught in American history, because America is a melting pot, a melting pot of cultures and ideas and events, trials, sacrifices and victories and everyone has been affected by history differently: different races and various times had different experiences and different trials to overcome. There is no single story. There is no book that could cover it all. The method used now is of no use: as everyone tries to keep up with everyone else, the same facts are repeated differently and leaves the readers in utter confusion with several versions of the same picture, or a picture that is incomplete. Indeed, there is no way to cover in a book the many threads in the story of the past and beginning of America. What’s to be done then? If there’s no book that can cover it all, what of history in schools? What of Christopher Columbus and John Smith and George Washington and Abraham Lincoln, now â€Å"walk-on characters† (pg. 777)? They are not history. History is not people and places and dates. History is us, our legacy, the legacy of our people and nation. It’s the spirit of our stories, and what’s happened to us to lead us to where we are today the â€Å"great unfinished symphony† (â€Å"The World was Wide Enough† Hamilton) of what we’ve done and are doing! History wasn’t written by people, it never was about Washington or Jefferson or Columbus, they didn’t write it. It was written by what they did, what happened, what they dreamed of and fought for and believed in and what came to pass. Never mind that they’re being replaced with Chief Crazy Horse and Jacob Riis (pg. 777), never mind Chief Crazy Horse and Jacob Riis, history is not about them. History is about us, it’s about us as a people, and our stories. It’s about identity: American identity. Identity cannot be taught in a textbook about Daniel Boone or Thaddeus Stevens or riots in the streets and wars for freedom. It isn’t taught through people or pictures or even words: it’s taught through experiences, understanding the experiences and the events of what led up to now. What has led up to the American identity as of now and everything that contributed to it before to make a â€Å"Now†. There is nothing wrong with learning from history books, there is nothing wrong with learning to think like a historian, there is nothing wrong with learning about the pilgrims and the Native Americans and the immigrants of the 1800s or the space age: there is nothing wrong with learning about all of it, but there is something wrong with learning none of it. â€Å"–they not only bring history up to date but make changes – often substantial changes – in the body of the work.† (pg. 782) In â€Å"–the histories of the fifties†¦America was perfect†¦. But now the texts have changed,† â€Å"The history texts now hint at a certain level of unpleasantness in American history.† (pg. 778) I was in 10th or 11th grade before I’d even heard of the Salem Witch trials, I never heard of POW camps and how brutal they were until high school either. Don’t soften the facts, don’t fluff it up, don’t omit it. Yes, Amer ican history has its dark periods, but it’s part of our story, it’s still part of who we are. It is who we are, it is our heritage, what we are living up to, and we have a right to all of it, the good and the bad, the good so we can know where to look for an example, and the bad so we can make it better and leave those dark periods behind. It is our history, and should not be shortened, should not be cut, should not be cheated in any way, we should know it. It is our history, our legacy, our identity, we should know it. Yes, there is something very wrong with America’s history that is taught in schools today. So many facts are missing, so many have changed, names and places that parents don’t recognize are prominent on the pages of their children’s textbooks, and as these names and places change yet again only a few years later, the picture changes and is left empty in places and a new kind of America, as incomplete and different from the first is the one the parents knew. The identity known to one generation and another are no longer the same: this should not be. America’s stories should be told, all of her stories should be told. Not just of one character, not just of the good times, not just of the bad. Not just with the intent to teach students to think like historians, but to bring understanding. History is heritage, it is a legacy, an identity. America is one, or ought to be, and students should be taught to be one. America should be one in spirit, and should be ta ught the spirit of her stories.